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verification & validation

Techteal Engineering can support you in all phases of the development process, for you to learn, implement and test/verify various ideas and solutions, focusing on Automotive Ethernet and Time-Sensitive Networking. You may use our expertise or buy off-the-shelf products to test, verify or validate on your own.

Ethernet as a well-established technology is still challenging because of the complexity of testing.

Based on the architecture and multiple protocols involved (7-layers of the OSI model) – engineers are challenged with different test methodologies:.

The integration of multiple Ethernet devices, such as ECUs, sensors and backbone components like switches or gateways into a network will always have different behavior than single components. Just simulating other devices on the application layer only validates the functional layer, but not the network layer. Simulation of best- and worst-case scenarios on the network layer is essential for full validation.

New Testing Strategies

New technologies often require new strategies for their analysis and validation. Techteal Engineering can assist you in developing efficient, flexible, and reliable test strategies. ​This includes in particular the development of standard tests for technologies such as Automotive Ethernet and its IVN protocols, like CAN and LIN.

The different Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standards require special care when testing, enabling reliable, time-sensitive communication within automotive networks, ensuring precise synchronization and deterministic transmission of critical data. For Automotive, the most common TSN standards are:

   IEEE 802.1AS-Rev  is an updated version of IEEE 802.1AS and includes enhancements for time synchronization in automotive networks. It addresses the specific requirements of in-vehicle systems.

   IEEE 802.1Qbv, known as the Time-Aware Shaper, provides mechanisms for time-aware scheduling of Ethernet frames. It enables the deterministic transmission of time-sensitive data, which is essential for safety-critical automotive applications.

   IEEE 802.1Qbu, or Frame Preemption, introduces the capability to interrupt and prioritize ongoing Ethernet transmissions. It allows for the quick transmission of high-priority messages, such as emergency signals or critical control commands, in automotive networks.

Testing Approaches

Testing in the automotive context typically involves a combination of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, software simulation, and field testing. Here are some approaches to effectively test these standards:

HIL Testing

Hardware-in-the-loop testing involves creating a test environment that combines physical hardware components, such as automotive electronic control units (ECUs), with simulated or emulated components. In the case of time synchronization, HIL testing can be used to simulate network communication and evaluate the behavior of ECUs in a controlled environment. This allows for testing different scenarios, including varying network loads, message priorities, and timing conditions.

Software Simulation

Software-based simulations provide a cost-effective way to evaluate the behavior and performance of time synchronization mechanisms. By creating virtual representations of automotive networks and ECUs, it is possible to simulate different network configurations, traffic patterns, and timing scenarios. This approach allows for comprehensive testing and analysis of the synchronization protocols in a wide range of conditions.

Field Testing

Field testing involves deploying the synchronized automotive systems in real-world conditions. This approach allows for validating the performance and reliability of time synchronization standards in actual automotive environments. Field testing provides insights into the interaction between different ECUs, network topologies, and external factors that may impact synchronization, such as electromagnetic interference or temperature variations.

Compliance Testing

Compliance testing ensures that the implemented time synchronization solutions adhere to the specific standards defined by the IEEE. Compliance testing involves verifying the conformance of the system to the standard’s requirements, including accuracy, precision, network latency, and message synchronization. Various tools and test suites are available for conducting compliance testing, helping ensure interoperability and compatibility with other devices and systems.

It is important to design comprehensive test scenarios that cover different use cases, network configurations, and timing constraints to thoroughly validate the behavior of time synchronization standards in automotive applications. Combining various testing approaches allows for a more comprehensive assessment of the standards' performance, robustness, and compatibility in real-world scenarios.

Key Areas

Protocol Testing

Compliance testing ensures that the Ethernet network adheres to the automotive industry standards such as IEEE 802.3bw (100BASE-T1), IEEE 802.3bp (1000BASE-T1) and IEEE 802.3ch, also known as Multi-Gig Automotive Ethernet.

Functional Safety Testing

For ISO 26262, all types of Fault Injection Testing, Safety Mechanism Testing, Diagnostic Coverage Testing, Functional Safety Verification, Hardware Fault Testing, Safety Communication Testing, and Safety Requirements Traceability are recommended.

Security Testing

Macflood testing for ECUs can be done when multiple Automotive Ethernet supporting ECUs connected in a IVN thus helping in non functional tesing of a vehicle. Encryption Testing  determines all potential threats and risks for the Automotive Ethernet enabled ECUs by conducting threat analysis and risks assessment (TARA). A penetration test, meaning a simulated cyber attack, can be performed to test the effectiveness of the measures using the standardization activities for the new ISO/SAE 21434 standard.

Functional Testing

Functional testing evaluates the ECU’s overall functionality and its ability to perform the desired operations. It includes testing various functions and features of the ECU, such as sensor input processing, actuator control, data processing and algorithms, communication interfaces, and system integration. Functional testing often involves executing test cases and comparing the actual results with the expected outcomes.

Interoperability Testing

OPEN Alliance TC1 Interoperability Testing verifies the compatibility and interaction between different components, devices, and systems that utilize Automotive Ethernet.  In the automotive industry, the need to interact well with other third parties is a new challenge. Failure to confirm interoperability will negatively impact safety, customer experience, and public trust in a brand.

Performance Testing

RFC2544 Performance testing assesses the network’s performance metrics such as latency, throughput, and packet loss under various load conditions. Various other switch based testing such as VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) Configuration and Isolation Testing, Multicast and Broadcast Testing, Switch Redundancy and Link Failure Testing are recommended.

Quality of Service Testing

Quality of Service (QoS) Testing, Frame Pre-emption Testing and Traffic Prioritization Testing assesses the network’s ability to prioritize different types of traffic and ensure the required bandwidth and latency for critical applications. QoS is well established in telecom and computer networking, as a measure of the performance experienced by users. As vehicles become increasingly connected, it is essential to check in-vehicle networks deliver as they should.

Integration Testing

Integration testing, also said to be combined testing is performed to verify the proper integration and interaction between different software modules and hardware components within the ECU,  checks the mulitple functionalities of the ECUs. This can ensure the overall performace of the system and if all the interfaces between different ECUs are properly integrated or not. Since there is an Ethernet included in the vehicle along with existing protocols like CAN, LIN and SOMEIP. It could be a challenging task for the OEMs to conduct an Integration testing of the system.

Integration Testing

Real-time Ethernet Backbone

Key Technologies

Techteal’s key areas of expertise are In-Vehicle Networks (IVN)


Automotive Ethernet 100/1000 Base-T1, 10BASE-T1S and MultiGigabit Base-T1


Switches - configuration for complex test scenarios


Ethernet Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) and former Audio Video Bridging (AVB)




CAN/CAN-FD, Flexray, LIN, MOST, SerDes, TC10


Logging and timestamping - capturing the complete in-vehicle-network communication

Test Automation

When it comes to the Automation we carefully do the Test Framework Selection that aligns with your testing requirements and the ECU’s technology stack.There are various frameworks available, such as CAPL (Communication Access Programming Language) for CAN-based ECUs, TTCN-3 (Testing and Test Control Notation) for telecommunications systems, or custom frameworks tailored for specific ECU testing.

Test Data Management: Manage test data effectively to support test automation. This includes creating test data sets, parameterizing the data to cover different scenarios, and maintaining test data repositories for reuse. Test data should encompass different input values, boundary conditions, and edge cases to ensure comprehensive testing coverage.

Test Script Development

Develop test scripts that automate the execution of test cases. Test scripts are written in a programming language compatible with the selected test automation framework. The scripts simulate inputs, execute test steps, monitor outputs, and verify the expected results. Test scripts can cover various aspects of ECU testing, including functional, performance, communication, and safety-related tests.

Test Data Management

Manage test data effectively to support test automation. This includes creating test data sets, parameterizing the data to cover different scenarios, and maintaining test data repositories for reuse. Test data should encompass different input values, boundary conditions, and edge cases to ensure comprehensive testing coverage.

We have expertise who have worked with several Test Data Management tools like Doors, JFrog, Git, GitHub, and SE Tool.

ECU Simulation and Emulation

Use simulation or emulation tools to replicate the behavior of other ECUs or vehicle components that interact with the ECU being tested. Simulating or emulating these components allows for comprehensive testing of the ECU’s integration and communication capabilities. Tools like Simulink, dSPACE, or NI VeriStand are commonly used for ECU simulation and emulation.

We are flexible to use any of the simualtion or emulation tool available in the market. Are you also using Vector CANoe? Or do you want to try some other?

Execution and Reporting

Execute automated tests using the chosen test automation framework. The framework controls the test execution, captures test results, and generates test reports. Test reports provide detailed information about test outcomes, including pass/fail status, log files, captured data, and any detected issues or failures. Test reports are crucial for traceability, debugging, and documenting the test results.

Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployement (CI/CD)

Integrate test automation with a CI/CD pipeline to ensure frequent and automated testing throughout the development process. CI/CD pipelines facilitate early detection of issues, faster feedback loops, and efficient collaboration among development teams. Integration with source control systems, build tools, and test management systems enhances the overall testing process.

Since every OEMs and Suppliers have their own way of CI/CD, we have experienced in with most of the Tools that is available in the market like Jenkins, JFrog, GitHub, Git.

Regression Testing

Automate regression tests to ensure that changes or updates to the ECU’s software or configuration do not introduce new defects or regress existing functionality. Regression test suites that we develop are executed automatically, verifying the system’s behavior against baseline results.

This helps maintain the quality and stability of the ECU’s functionality across different software versions or configurations.

Test Environment Management

Establish and manage appropriate test environments for ECU testing. This includes setting up hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) rigs, configuring simulators or emulators, and managing network and communication interfaces. Proper test environment management ensures the availability of the necessary resources for automated testing and supports the reproducibility of test results.

Test Coverage Analysis

Employ coverage analysis tools to assess the coverage achieved by automated tests. Coverage analysis measures the extent to which the tests exercise the ECU’s code, requirements, and different aspects of functionality. It helps identify gaps in test coverage and enables test optimization and enhancement to achieve higher coverage levels.

We are experienced enough to use any licenced tool to do the Test Coverage Analysis or we can use any kind of open source tool available.